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Studies on Chromate Removal by Chromium-Resistant Bacillus sp. Isolated from Tannery Effluent() . A chromate-removing strain was isolated from spent chrome effluent and identified as Bacillus circulans strain MN1. The isolated strain was studied for resistance to Cr (VI) and its ability to remove Cr (VI). The strain was found to tolerate Cr (VI ...


Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], widely generated by tannery activities, is considered among the most toxic substances and causes a serious damage for the environment and for human health. Interestingly, some microorganisms have a potential of bioremediation of chromium-contaminated wastewaters and soils through the reduction of Cr(VI) (soluble and harmful form) into Cr(III) (stable and non-toxic ...


waste water stream which is typically hauled away. The recovery and reuse of the salt and water is a solution to this growing problem. Curing (with salt) Soak in Water (unhairing) Bating (addition of enzymes for softenig) Pickling (increase hide ph) Beam House Operation Vegetable Tanning Chrome Tanning Finishng Deliming The Tanning Process


Chromium is the most commonly used heavy metal in the leather industry during tanning processes [] and is usually discharged with wastewater by repeated (3–4 times) tanning sessions [].Chromium, even at low concentrations, is toxic to plants as well as animals [11,12,13].Cr toxicity evokes considerable stress symptoms in plants, i.e., alterations in the germination process, reduced ...


Aims: To characterize the bacterial consortia and isolates selected for their role in hexavalent chromium removal by adsorption and reduction. Methods and Results: Bacterial consortia from industrial wastes revealed significant Cr(VI) removal after 15 days when incubated in medium M9 at pH 6·5 and 8·0. The results suggested chromium reduction. The bacterial consortia diversity (T …


chrome tanning, chromium is used. The main protein of the skin, collagen reacts with the polyphenols in the plant materials or chromium. In vegetable tanning, the collagen reacts with vegetable tannins via hydrogen bonding to form a stable matrix. In chrome tanning, diffusion of chromium (III) salts into the skin matrix at pH 3.5-4.0 leads to


Biological Treatment of Leather-Tanning Industrial Wastewater Using Free Living Bacteria Ebtesam El-Bestawy 1&2* Fahad Al-Fassi 1 Ranya Amer 3 Reham Aburokba 1 1. Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, King Abdul Aziz University. P.O. Box 42805 Jeddah 21551, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 2.


Srivastava and Thakur also reported the efficiency of Aspergillus sp. used for the removal of chromium in tannery waste water. 85% of chromium was removed at pH 6 in a bioreactor system from the synthetic medium, compared to a 65 % removal from the tannery effluent. This could be due to the presence of organic pollutants that hinder the growth ...


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9.15 Leather Tanning - US EPA

9.15 Leather Tanning 9.15.1 General 1-4 Leather tanning is the process of converting raw hides or skins into leather. Hides and skins have the ability to absorb tannic acid and other chemical substances that prevent them from decaying, make them resistant to wetting, and keep them supple and durable. The surface of hides and skins contains the ...


The conventional way to treat tannery wastewater is to apply chemical precipitation and aerobic biological treatment in an activated sludge stage (EIPPCB 2013).It has been shown that sequencing batch reactors (SBR) might be better suited for the removal of organic matter measured as COD and nitrogen compounds (Murat et al. 2002).As discussed by Lin et al., the application of …


suppression of the pickling and the application of enzymes to improve the exhaustion of vegetal tannins. Other papers are referred to the reuse of the tanning process wastewater. Inthis case, the chromium reuse also impliesthe reuse of the sulfates since the tanning agent is used as basic chromium sulfate (CrOHSO4). However, authors focus their ...


The extremely high concentrations of TSS, TDS, chemical oxygen demand, and ions like chromium, sulfate, and chloride causes tannery waste water to …


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3. TANNERIES

The hides become somewhat softer by this enzyme treatment. Pickling: Pickling increases the acidity of the hide to a pH of 3, enabling chromium tannins to enter the hide. Salts are added to prevent the hide from swelling. For preservation purposes, 0.03 - 2 weight percent of fungicides and bactericides are applied. Tanning


1.1.11. Disposal and waste water treatment: The waste water generated through the above processes is treated and the degradable waste materials are segregated for composting. The waste water released are required to have minimum amount of chemicals and hence are treated within the plant before they are merged into drains.


The efficacy of Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) based on activated sludge process employed for treatment of tannery effluent was analyzed for the efficiency to reduce chromium and other contaminants. Physico-chemical parameters of treated effluent were found within permissible levels of statutory limits. A significant reduction in COD and BOD levels were achieved during the …


Tannery wastewater is composed of a complex mixture of organic and inorganic components from various processes that can critically pollute the environment, especially water bodies if discharged without treatment. In this study, integrated vesicular basalt rock and local plant species were used to establish a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland system and to investigate the …


Microbial and plant derived biomass for removal of heavy metals from wastewater. Bioresource Technology, 98(12), pp. 2243-2257. In article View Article PubMed [2] Agrawal, A., Kumar, V., and Pandey, B. D. 2006. Remediation options for the treatment of electroplating and leather tanning effluent containing chromium a review.


50%, chlorides by 70%, sulphates by 65%, and chromium by up to 90%. Yet, despite all preventive measures, there is still a considerable amount of pollution load to be dealt with by end-of-pipe methods. The purpose of this booklet is to help tanners and tannery managers get acquainted with basic principles and methods of tannery effluent treatment.


The treated tannery effluent samples were collected in sterile glass bottles from the release point of common effluent treatment plant (CETP) of tanneries located at Jazmau, Kanpur, India and transported on ice to the laboratory within 6 h of collection. The effluent …


However, the waste waters from various steps having nature as given in Table 11.23 when reaches the treatment plant the tannery composite waste water characteristics become as given in Table 11.23 and biological composition of settled and filtered composite tannery waste shows value, …


water quality at a tannery near Addis Ababa. The treatment process was designed for the following: sulfide oxidation; biological oxygen demand reduction; and chromium removal. While some of Ethiopia's standards for industrial wastewater treatment were met through treatment, effluent COD, sulfide, total nitrogen, and total chromium guidelines were


12%Pakzadeh B, Batista JR (2011) Chromium removal from ion-exchange waste brines with calcium polysulfide. Water Res 45(10):3055–3064. Google Scholar Panda RC, Lajpathi Rai C, Sivakumar V, Baran Mandal A (2012) Odour removal in leather tannery. Adv Chem Eng Sci 2(2):199–203. Google Scholar


process of chromium tanning is based on the cross-linkage of chromium ions with free carboxyl groups in the collagen. It makes the hide resistant to bacteria and high temperature. The chromium-tanned hide contains about 2-3% by dry weight of Cr (III). Wetblue, i.e. the raw hide after the chrome-tanning process, has about 40% of dry matter.


The bacteria were isolated from tannery effluent and were studied for their colony morphology characteristics ().Colonies forming unit per ml were calculated as 1.68 × 10 4 CFU/ml from 10 −1 dilution and were used to enumerate the microbial diversity in the collected tannery effluent. Similarly, Shukla et al. (2007) stated that bacteria colony count was 1.5 × 10 3 when it was isolated from ...


2.2.7. Toxic Effects of Chromium in Microorganisms. Biologically, chromium ions are important nutrients as they involve in electron transport reaction in biological systems; however, microorganisms are also highly sensitive to both deficiency and excessiveness of chromium and its compounds just like plants and humans [].Chromium toxicity affects microbial population size, …


Chromium has widespread applications in various industrial processes such as electroplating, , dyeing, tanning and metallurgy. However, improper disposal of effluents from these industries results in environmental pollution [1,2,3].This has fatal consequences on the environment, plants and animals as it exerts carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic effects and …


Serious chromium (Cr 6+) contamination of both surface water and ground water has been reported in the Palar River Basin of Vellore District (Tamil Nadu), India due to the discharge of improperly treated effluents from tanneries and other industries


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Tannery waste - SlideShare

Tannery processing and contaminant load • The production of fresh hides has been estimated at about 8-9 million tonnes per year • During the processing of these hides a total of 1.4 million tonnes of solid waste is produced • This means that in all likelihood ca 16% of the processed hides is leather waste • puts the figures for ...


Treatment of complex tannery wastewater with Paques technologies The Hulshof Royal Dutch Tanneries was founded in 1876. It is one of the largest European producers of high quality upholstery leather, processing many thousands of hides every week for …


Biological Treatment of Tannery Wastewater - A Review. Tannery wastewaters are highly complex and are characterized by high contents of organic, inorganic and nitrogenous compounds, chromium, sulfides, suspended solids and dissolved solids. Treatment of tannery wastewater is carried out by physical or chemical or biological or combination of ...


Introduction. In Industries toxic waste are released from different chemical processes into the environment [1]. Chromium (Cr) is an important metal used in a wide range of industrial processes, the prominent industrial sectors are electroplating, metal finishing industries, leather tanning, chromate preparation [2], oxidative dyeing unit, textile dyeing, and water-cooling towers [3] and is ...